FUNDAMENTALS OF A RESEARCH DESIGN Meaning of research design Decisions are taken under research design Needs of research design Essentials of research…
A research need not lead to a feasible solution but it may give rise to new problems which may require further research. It is not an end to any problem since every research gives birth to a new question. It is carried on both for discovering new facts and verification of old ones.
DEFINE THE RESEARCH
- Formation of research word
- General characteristics
- Purpose / aims / objectives
- Qualities of a good research
- characteristics of a good researcher
- Precautions for quality research
- Research scope in different areas
- Meaning of business/ social/educational research
FORMATION OF RESEARCH WORD:
The word research consists of two words, re and search.
Research = Re + Search
‘Re’ means again and again and ‘Search’ means to find out something.
We can say that the former as a prefix meaning again & again and the latter as a verb meaning to examine closely and carefully, to test and try. Together, we describe in the form of careful & systematic study and investigation in some field of knowledge, undertaken to make a relationship to establish facts or principles.
MEANING OF RESEARCH:
Research means to search for knowledge. It is a scientific and systematic search for information on a particular issue. It is also called the art of scientific investigation. Several social scientists have defined research in different ways.
It may be defined as a systematic approach/method consisting of enunciating the social or business problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts/data, analyzing the data and reaching certain conclusions, either in the form of the solution towards the concerned problem or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation. It may also be defined as a scientific study.
Thus, research is an original addition to the available knowledge, which contributes to its further advancement. It is an attempt to pursue truth through the methods of study, observation, comparison, and experiment. In addition, It is the search for knowledge, using objective and systematic methods to find the optimal solution to a problem.
Research is an art of scientific investigation. It covers the search for and retrieval of information for a specific purpose. It has many categories, from medical research to literary research. Basically, It is a search for truth with the help of some study, observation, comparison, and experiments. It is a search for knowledge with the help of an objective and systematic method of finding a solution to a problem.
It is simply the process of finding a solution to a problem after a complete study and analysis of the situational factors.
Research is a purposeful investigation. It provides a structure for decision making. It provides an analytical framework for the subject matter of investigation.
It establishes the relationship between different variables, especially the relationship of the dependent variables with the valuable independent variables. In short, the search for knowledge through the objective and systematic method of finding the solution to a problem is research.
Research is required because of the following reasons.
- To identify and find solutions to the problems.
- To help with making decisions.
- To develop new concepts.
- To find alternate strategies.
DEFINITIONS OF RESEARCH
According to V. Redman and A.V.H. Mory
“Research is a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.”
According to Robert Ross
“Research is essentially an investigation, a recording and an analysis of evidence for the purpose of gaining knowledge.”
It can generally be defined as a systematic method of finding solutions to problems.
According to George J. Mouly
He defines research as, “The systematic and scholarly application of the scientific method interpreted in its broader sense, to the solution of social studies problems; conversely, any systematic study designed to promote the development of social studies as a science can be considered research.”
According to the Encyclopedia of Social Science
“Research is the manipulation of things concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the practice of an art.”
According to James Harvey Robinson
“Research is but diligent search which enjoys the high flavour or primitive hunting.”
According to John W. Best thinks
“Research is considered to be the more formal, systematic, intensive process of carrying on the scientific methods of analysis. It involves a more systematic structure of investigation, usually resulting in some sort of formal record of procedures and a report of results or conclusions.”
According to C. Francies Rummel
“Research is an endeavour to discover, develop and verify knowledge. It is an intellectual process that has developed over hundreds of years, ever changing in purpose and form and always searching for truth.”
NATURE OF RESEARCH:
The nature of research is as follows:–
(1)Objective & Valid: – It strives to be objective and logical, applying every possible test,
to validate the procedure employed, the data collected and the conclusion reached.
(2)Future Happening: – It Emphasizes the development of generalization, principles of theories,
that will be helpful in predicting future occurrences.
(3)Courage: – It is sometimes that requires courage
(4)Solve the Problem: – Research is directed towards the solution of a problem. It may attempt to answer a question to determine the relationship between two or more variables.
(5)Experiences: – It is based upon observable experience.
(6)Tape and Reporting: – It is carefully recorded and reported.
(7) Know-How: – Research requires expertise; the researcher knows what is already known,
about the problem and how others have investigated it.
(8)Collection of Data: Research involves gathering new data from primary sources or using existing data for the new purpose.
GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
The following characteristics may be gathered from the definitions of ‘Research’
- It gathers new knowledge or data from primary or first-hand sources.
- It’s emphasis upon the discovery of general principles.
- It is a systematic and accurate investigation.
- It uses certain valid data gathering devices.
- It is logical and objective.
- The researcher seeks only the data that support their hypotheses.
- The researcher eliminates personal feelings and preferences.
- It endeavours to organise data in quantitative terms.
- Research is patient and unhurried activity.
- The researcher is willing to follow their procedures to the conclusions that may be unpopular and bring social disapproval.
- Research is carefully recorded and reported.
- Conclusions and generalizations arrive at carefully and cautiously.
FEATURES OF RESEARCH
- It means the discovery of new knowledge.
- It is essentially an investigation.
- It is related to the solution of a problem.
- It is based on observation or experimental evidence.
- It demands accurate observation or experimentation.
- In research, the researchers try to find out answers to unsolved questions.
- It should be carefully recorded and reported.
PURPOSE / AIMS / OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
- To find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered so far.
- Aims at advancing systematic knowledge and formulating basic theories about the forces influencing the relation between groups as well as those acting on personality development and is an adjustment with individuals.
- Try to improve tools of analysis or to test these against the complex human behavior and institutions.
- To understand social life and thereby to gain a greater measure of control over social behavior.
- To provide an educational program in the accumulated knowledge of group dynamics, in skills of research, in techniques of training leaders and in social action.
- To discover new facts & verify and test old facts through the test.
- To analyze their sequences, inter-relationships, and explanations which are derived within an appropriate theoretical frame of reference?
- To develop new scientific tools, concepts, and theories which would facilitate the reliable and valid study of human behavior in decision making?
- Research helps in portraying accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group in the organization and leads to organization redesign, and design of strategies of development.
- Research may be used to determine the frequency with which a certain thing occurs or with which it is associated with something else.
- It helps in testing a hypothesis or a casual relationship between variables to determine the cause and effect impacts.
- The primary goal of the research, immediate or distant, is to understand the organizational culture, social life, social environment, decision-making processes etc and thereby gain a greater measure of control over human behavior in the organization and social context.
- To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. The Academic object of research is the acquisition of knowledge and it is the thirst for knowledge coupled with curiosity that has been the guiding force behind a rich variety of research work independent of any material incentive.
NEED / IMPORTANCE FOR RESEARCH
The main importance is to produce knowledge that can be applied outside a research setting. Research also forms the foundation of program development and policies everywhere around the universe. It also solves particular existing problems of concern. Research is important because we are able to learn more about things, people, and events. In doing research, we are able to make smart decisions.
Marketing research is an important part of any business because it allows consumers and producers to become more familiar with the products, goods, and services around them. It is important to society because it allows us to discover more and more that might make our lives easier, more comfortable and safer.
It presents more information for the investigation. This allows for improvements based on greater information and study. It is very important. It encourages interdisciplinary approaches to find a solution to problems and to make new discoveries. It is a basic ingredient for development and therefore serves as a means for rapid economic development.
The main importance is as follows:
- It provides the basis for government policies
- It Helps in solving various operational and planning problems of business and industry
- Research helps in problem-solving
- It is useful to students, professionals, philosophers, literary men, analysts, and intellectuals.
QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCH
- It must be systematic.
- must be logical.
- It must be empirical.
- must be verifiable.
- Common concepts must be used.
- The procedure followed in research must be sufficiently described
- The procedure should be more described that the objective of research can be achieved.
CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD RESEARCHER
In selecting a problem, it is very essential for an investigator to possess the following characteristics:
- They should be sensitive in their nature.
- They should be problem-minded.
- They should have mastery in the area and should have specialization in the field studied.
- They should have a scientific outlook about the area.
- They should have a deep insight into the educational process.
- They should be able to think reflectively on the field studied.
- They should have tolerance and patience.
- They should be interested in the field studied.
- They should be honest and devotee to their work.
- They should have the curiosity to find out something new or to answer some questions which are still to be answered.
PRECAUTIONS FOR QUALITY RESEARCH:
The following principles must be observed in order to ensure the quality work
Purpose: The purpose should be clearly defined and common precept is used.
Scientific Process: The procedure used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research in a systematic manner.
Continuity: It should be carried out in such a manner that the principle of continuity is ensured.
Right Planning: The design should be planned in a most scientific way and all aspect of resources,
time frame, constraints, and procedural aspects are taken into consideration.
Honesty: The researcher should report with complete frankness, flaws in procedural design and evaluate their effect on the findings.
The accuracy of Data: The analysis of data should be sufficiently adequate to reveal its significance and the methods of analysis used should be appropriate.
Trust on Data: The validity and reliability of data should be checked carefully
Right Frame: It means that research is structured with a specified sequence in accordance with the well-defined set of rules. Guessing and intuition in arriving at conclusions are rejected.
Reasonable Proved: This implies that research is guided by the rules of logical reasoning and logical process of induction and deduction are used.
Empiricism: This implies that research is related basically to one or more aspects of a real situation,
and deals with concrete data that provides a basis for the external validity of research results.
Replicability: This principle allows the research result to be verified by replicating the study and thereby building a sound basis for the decision.
Cost Effective: It should be completed within the allocated financial resources
Completion in Time: Frame research should be completed in the stipulated time frame.
MOTIVATION IN RESEARCH
The following are the possible motives for doing research:
- Curiosity for the unknown is the basic motivating factor in social research.
- The Research of cause-effect-relation is also a basic motivating factor in research.
- An unusual happening stimulates research.
- Refinement of techniques of Research is also a motivating factor in research.
LIMITATIONS OF RESEARCH
- Research conclusions are based upon data collected. Therefore, when the data collected are not valid or adequate, the conclusion will not be conclusive or appropriate.
- Activities in a society are influenced by various internal and external factors.
- Small organizations cannot afford to have research on various issues.
- Many people in society depend on customs, traditions, routines, and practices for taking a decision, they ignore research.
It is usually based on sample studies. But in many cases, samples are not true representatives. Therefore the research reports based on these samples may not be accurate.
RESEARCH SCOPE IN DIFFERENT AREAS:
- Production Management: The research plays a significant role in product development, diversification, launching a new product, product improvement, process technologies, selecting a site, new investment etc.
- Personnel Management: Research helps in job redesign, organization restructuring, development of motivational strategies and organizational development.
- Marketing Management: Research plays a significant role in the choice and size of the target market, the consumer behavior in terms of attitudes, lifestyle, and influences of the target market. It is the main instrument in deciding price policy, selection of a channel of distribution and development of sales strategies, product mix, promotional strategies etc.
- Finance Management: It helps in portfolio management, distribution of dividend, capital raising, hedging and taking care of fluctuations in foreign exchange and product cycles.
- Materials Management: It is used in selecting the supplier, taking the decisions pertaining to make or buy as well as in deciding negotiation strategies.
- General Management: It helps in developing the standards, objectives, long-term goals, and growth strategies.
Fig 1.1 scope in different areas
MEANING OF BUSINESS RESEARCH
Business research refers to systematic collection and analysis of data with the purpose of finding answers to problems related management fields.
It can be carried out with the objective to explore, to describe or to diagnose a phenomenon. It involves establishing objectives and gathering relevant information to obtain the answer to a business issue and it can be conducted to answer a business-related question, such as: What is the target market of my product?
It can also be used to solve a business-related problem, such as determining how to decrease the amount of excess inventory on hand. Adequate planning and information-gathering are essential to derive results for the business.
MEANING OF SOCIAL RESEARCH
Social research refers to research conducted by social scientists. It is the scientific investigation conducted in the field of social sciences and also in the behavioral sciences. methods can generally vary along a quantitative/qualitative dimension.
While various methods may sometimes be classified as quantitative or qualitative, most methods contain elements of both. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyze a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals to the in-depth analysis of a single agents’ social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents.
The social science research is a systematic method of exploring, analyzing and conceptualizing social life in order to expand, correct or verify knowledge whether that knowledge aids in the construction of theory or in the practice of an art.
MEANING OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
Educational Research is that activity which is directed towards the development of a science of behavior in educational situations. The objective of this research is to provide knowledge that will permit the educator to achieve their goals by most effective methods. it refers to a variety of methods, in which individuals evaluate different aspects of education including “student learning, teaching methods, teacher training, and classroom dynamics”.
Educational researchers have come to the consensus that, educational research must be conducted in a rigorous and systematic way although what this implies is often debated. There are a variety of disciplines which are each present to some degree in educational research. These include psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy. The overlap in disciplines creates a broad range from which methodology can be drawn. The findings also need to be interpreted within the context in which they were discovered as they may not be applicable in every time or place.
- Define the term ‘Research’, Enumerate its characteristics.
- Give a comprehensive definition of research.
- Define Research. Describe the specific features of Research.
- Enumerate the main objectives and explain them in detail.
- What do you mean by Research? Explain its significance in modern times.
- Discuss the Factors motivating Research.
- Explain the Principles of a Good Research.
- Explain the problem and limitations faced in the process.
- What is the importance of knowing how to do research?
- Highlight the different approaches.
- Discuss the qualities of a researcher.
- Explain the different types of research.
- “Research is much concerned with proper fact finding, analysis, and evaluation.” Do you agree with this statement? Give reason in support of your answers.